Recipe Archive

Below is our archive of traditional recipes from across Sudan. They are presented as summaries rather than detailed recipes and can be easily followed with basic kitchen experience.
Feel free get in touch to contribute recipes not included here to further build and diversify this archive, thank you in advance!

Ajeena Zerga

عجينة زرقة
Grey Batter
  1. Bring water to the boil in a large pot. In a separate bowl mix geer flour with cold water until smooth.
  2. Pour the geer in cold water into the boiling water and mix well into a porridge.
  3. Add honey, ghee, ground cardamom, and ground cinnamon then mix and taste and balance the flavours.

Aish Al Basawla

عيش البصاولة
Basawla Bread
  1. Mix yeast, sugar and lukewarm water in a small cup to activate over 2 to 3 minutes, creating a foam.
  2. Mix plain flour, wholemeal flour and salt then add the activated yeast and enough water to form a thick yet supple bread dough.
  3. Allow as much air as possible to enter the dough while kneading by folding the dough over itself to trap air inside.
  4. Divide the dough between two large greased cake pans or circular baking trays, about the size of a car steering wheel, and ensure the sides of the pan are high enough to allow the loaves to rise.
  5. Allow the bread to rise in a warm area for 10 to 15 minutes, preheat the oven to 180°C then bake for 15 to 20 minutes until fully risen and golden all over.
  6. Remove from the oven and pan then serve warm or cool, breaking off a piece or cutting.

Al Maleel

Sorghum Baleela
  1. Use young, soft, green sorghum grains.
  2. Dry the grains in sunlight for a day until dried, then store until the next day or for up to 3 months.
  3. Boil the grains uncovered in a large pot of water until soft then season with salt and ghee to taste.

A local expression says, “baleela bi'tarfah al bala”, meaning baleela takes away bad energies.

Al Musaba'a

البليلة المسبعة
Seven Bean Broth
  1. The seven beans include chickpeas (cabcabe), wheat (gamih), bulghur wheat (burghul), millet (dukhun), sorghrum (zura), black-eyed peas (lubia) and red kidney beans (fasulia hamra).
  2. Soak 1/4 cup (approx. 50g) of each bean in plenty of lukewarm water for 6 to 8 hours, or overnight then drain and discard the water. Alternatively, use 1/2 cup (100g) of each cooked bean for a larger batch.
  3. Start by boiling the soaked chickpeas and wheat in 2 litres water while covered for 10 to 15 minutes then add the remaining beans and boil for a further 20-30 minutes later since these cook in less time.
  4.  Cook the beans until they become soft then season into a savoury (using salt and spices) or sweet dish (using a sweetener and spices) depending on the desired taste.

Baleela (Chickpea Baleela)

البليلة الكبكبي
Chickpeas in Broth
  1. Soak dried chickpeas overnight in plenty of water, or use precooked and tinned chickpeas.
  2. Discard the water from the soak dried chickpeas and cook in a pot of boiling water while covered for 30 minutes until soft and break easily when pressed between fingers.
  3. Place the cooked chickpeas in a small pot and heat gently in enough water to just cover the chickpeas for 5 to 10 minutes. Season with salt, ground cumin, a pinch of chilli powder and lime juice then place in small serving bowls.
  4. Sprinkle a little more ground cumin as garnish serving.


boil with half or a whole stock cube of choice.

Beid bel Basturma

بيض بالبسطرمة
Fried eggs with Pasturma
  1. To a large frying pan of warm oil or ghee on gentle heat, and fry chopped onion until they soften and golden.
  2.  Add 1 to 2 chopped fresh tomatoes and allow 2 to 3 minutes for the tomatoes to breakdown and change to a darker colour.
  3. Add a splash of vinegar, 1 tsp tomato paste and 1/4 chopped green pepper.
  4. Add small strips of pasturma (not pastrami) to the pan and mix together into the sauce. Alternatively use premade minced meat.
  5. Add either beaten or whole eggs. I prefer to add whole eggs and season them individually as they cook in the sauce, opening the yoke at the appropriate time after most of the white has cooked and manipulating the pan to get an omelette form, and covering to cook the top of the omlette.
  6. Season with salt and pepper and move gently until fully cooked and garnish with fresh thyme.


Pasturma is already salted, therefore be careful not to over salt when seasoning the eggs.


Stuffed Lamb Intestines

Stuffed large intestine stuffed with rice, minced meat or liver.

  1. Thoroughly clean a lamb’s large intestine in water, lime, salt, and vinegar until as clean as possible.
  2. Once cleaned, cut them to about 20 to 30 cm per intestine.
  3. Close one end using a trussing needle and cooking thread then stuff the open ends with a mixture of minced meat, boiled rice, raisins, salt and pepper and spices, then seal and either pan-fry in oil or cook over coals, turning occasionally, until charred or seared, 8 to 10 minutes.


use part-boiled rice and finishing cooking it in the pan. Another stuffing options can be chopped liver, salt and pepper, garlic, lime juice, vinegar and then fried over coals.

  1. Wash lamb intestines well with salt water until thoroughly clean.
  2. Stuff the cleaned intestines with small raw pieces of lamb meat, liver, kidneys, spices salt, pepper, coriander and chillies.
  3. Stuff into individual sausages and tie the intestine onto each other to make a string of sausages.
  4. Barbeque the sausages over hot coals, fats should drip off the intestines as they cook. 


Minced Meat and Crispy Okra
  1. Pan-fry raw minced meat in some oil with finely chopped onions, tomato puree, crushed garlic and a pinch of sugar.
  2. Season with ground coriander, pepper, salt. 
  3. Peel the hairs off fresh okra and also discard the heads and tails.
  4. Chop the okra and season with salt then spread out onto a medium casserole dish and bake until crispy or pan-fry until cooked.
  5. Mix the cooked okra into the minced meat mixture and serve.

Baida Scotlandia

البيض الاسكتلندي
Scotsh Eggs
  1. Boil an egg so that the white cooks firm but the yolk centre remains soft, approximately 4 to 5 minutes on simmering heat.
  2. Soak the eggs in cool water to help remove the outer shell.
  3. In a separate bowl season minced meat with salt, pepper, crushed garlic, ground coriander, ground cardamom, grated nutmeg, and chopped parsley or dill.
  4. Mix together with only enough breadcrumbs to give the minced meat some hold when moulded.
  5. Cover the eggs in a layer of flour, then take one egg at a time and carefully shape and roll a 0.5-1cm thick layer of the minced meat around the egg.
  6. Cover with another layer of flour then place in the fridge for 10 to 15 mins for better hold.
  7. Meanwhile beat eggs in a large bowl and season with salt and pepper, then place breadcrumbs in another bowl next to your cooker.
  8. Heat oil in a large pan for deep frying and place kitchen towels to one side. Cover one Scotch egg at a time with the beaten egg batter and then cover with a a final layer of breadcrumbs.
  9. Deep fry the Scotch eggs in hot oil until golden then leave to dry on kitchen towels until cool. Alternatively, bake in the oven until golden.


Sudanese Baklava
  • Prepare the fillings
    Take 1 cup roasted peanuts and beat in a bag or blend into small crumbs, avoid over-blending into a fine powder. Pour into a bowl and add 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 teaspoon of cinnamon powder. Mix and leave to the side.


1 tablespoon of coconut flakes or pistachio nuts can be used instead of peanuts.  

  • Prepare the clarified butter
    Heat 250g of butter and melt in a pot slowly until the butter releases its distinctive smell and begins to turn golden-brown. As soon as the butter produces small brown deposits, remove from the heat immediately sieve into another bowl using fine a metal sieve to remove the burning cream leaving the pure butter oil, or clarified butter. Alternatively use melted ghee.
  • Prepare the baasta
    Brush clarified butter over the base and sides of a shallow baking tray. Most baklavas are made with five to six layers of greased phyllo sheets on either side of the filling. Begin to separate 2 to 3 sheets individually; removing the rest can be done as you go along. Begin to layer the phyllo sheets on the baking tray and brush each sheet lightly with the butter oil and pressing each layer down firmly to remove air and ensure it holds well. Once 5 to 6 greased phyllo sheets are on the baking tray, spread the filling layer evenly over the whole surface of the buttered sheets. Preheat the oven to 180°C. Place 5 to 6 plyllo sheets in the same manner as previously mentioned, by buttering each sheet and removing the trapped air. Once the final layer is on the baasta, cut the baasta in diagonals at a 45° angle on one side, then repeat on the other. This should separate each piece of backlava into a diamond shape. Bake the cut baasta in the oven at 180°C for 20-30 mins or until the pastry turns golden.
  • Prepare the syrup
    Take 1.5 cups of sugar, 3/4 cup of water, lime juice from half a lime and 1 to 2 cinnamon sticks and warm in a pan on a medium heat for 10 mins until forming a thick syrup.


Orange juice and zest can be used instead of lime to make the sugar syrup.

  • Finishing the baasta
    Either pour warm syrup evenly over cooled baasta, or cooled syrup over warm pastry and leave for 5 mins to allow the pastry to absorb the syrup. Carefully arrange the baasta on a serving dish and garnish with ground cinnamon or ground pistachio nuts. Serve cool.
  • Preparing a cream and filled baasta
    Melt butter slowly in a pan under low heat until liquid. Add 3 tablespoons of plain flour and half a cup of milk or enough to make a smooth white sauce. Add 3 to 4 tablespoons of sugar, vanilla seeds and heat until thick. Prepare baasta as instructed above and spread the cream filling after placing the 4th pastry sheet layer for the base of the baasta, followed by the nut filling after the 7th pastry sheet layer and complete the recipe as instructed using 3 to 4 layers (10-11 sheets in total).


Vanilla extract or flavouring can be used instead of vanilla pods. Cinnamon sticks or powder can be used instead of vanilla.

Rolled baasta

Following the same technique as above, but there is a slight difference when it comes to arranging the sheets.

  1. Begin with one phyllo pastry sheet on a clean dry work surface, fold over 2 inches from the bottom of the sheet then firmly fold the same piece over again, then unfold to its original flat state. There should be two 2 inch thick strips on the bottom of the pastry sheet, the strip on top and closer to the center is where the filling goes, and the layer below is folded over and over until the remainder of the sheet is rolled.
  2. Butter 4 phyllo sheets individually and press against one another on a greased baking tray.
  3. Fold the two inch space from the bottom as before then begin to place the filling along the length of the filling line as previously specified.
  4. Try to make the height of the filling the exact height as the area below so that it fits perfectly when folded to seal the filling.
  5. Continue to fold over the filling layer and roll it until the end of the sheet.
  6. Rolled baasta should have the filling in the centre covered by phyllo pastry.
  7. Arrange the rolled baasta next to each other on the baking tray and cut into 2-3 inch long pieces then bake in the oven until golden and finish with sugar syrup as instructed.  


Semolina Cake
  1. Source coarse semolina flour from an international food store or larger supermarket.
  2. Place 2 cups coarse semolina in a bowl and add 1 cup dessicated coconut, half a cup sugar, a tablespoon of plain flour.
  3. Mix the dry ingredients in the bowl first then add 1 cup of melted butter or ghee, 1.25-1.5 cups of thick yoghurt, mix well into thick mixture.
  4. Spread butter or ghee over a baking dish then evenly spread the mixture into the dish.
  5. Allow the dough to rest for an hour (some prefer to put in the fridge) before baking in an oven at 180°C for 25 to 30 mins or until golden brown on top, some like to grill the surface for 3 to 4 minutes to get a crispy golden brown top layer. 
  6. Meanwhile, prepare the syrup by mixing 1.25 cups of sugar, 0.75 cup of water, lime juice from half a lime and 1-2 cinnamon sticks and place in a pot and heat on a medium heat for 10 mins until forming a thick syrup.
  7. Cut the cooled basbusa diagonally on both directions to separate the pieces into diamond shapes, then firmly place a whole almond in the centre of each diamond.
  8. Pour the warm syrup over the cooked and fresh cut basbusa after removing from the oven.
  9. The basbusa should be warm when pouring the warm sugar syrup and is the exception to the rule mentioned in baasta recipe. This allows the baasta to soak up the syrup. Serve cool.

Boneless chicken

دجاج بدون عظم
  1. Debone a chicken as shown on youtube:
  2. Beat the flattened chicken with a food mallet (not always done, but tenderises the meat).
  3. Season inside and out with salt, pepper, crushed garlic, ground coriander, grated ginger, chilli powder/flakes, warm butter, ghee or oil.
  4. Seal the cavity with trussing needle and thread or use wooden picks/skewers until secure.
  5. Cover in beaten eggs seasoned with salt, pepper, vinegar and then a roll in flour.
  6. Deep fry in hot oil and carefully turn to cook evenly until golden on all sides then drain and serve.


Can bake in the oven instead of deep frying without the egg glaze. Parboil a peeled potato and/or similar vegetables then season and stuff into the main cavity with tomato paste to give the dish shape.


Cheese Pastry

فطيرة الجبنة
Fatirat Jibna
  1. Mix 500g flour, 1.5 tablespoons yeast, 0.5 tablespoon salt, 2.5 tablespoon sugar, and mix with either 1 cup ghee, vegetable oil, butter, or milk fat (gishta).
  2. Mix into a supple dough, place into a deep bowl, and allow to ferment in a warm dry area until almost double its original size.
  3. From the main ball make smaller, golf ball sized, dough balls then flatten one at a time into thin rectangular pieces.
  4. Slash the dough 3 times in the final third, lengthways.
  5. Fill the first third with crumbled Sudanese white cheese or pieces of braided cheese, then roll the dough over the second third and final third so that the slashes appear on the outside of a small rectangular pastry. Seal firmly on all sides.
  6. Continue to make the pastries using the remaining dough and cheese filling.
  7. Arrange the pastries on a baking tray, brush with an egg glaze, then bake in an oven at 180°C for 15 to 20 mins until golden.


Use self raising flour, salt, baking powder, powdered milk, and enough olive oil to make the dough. 

Chicken Tray

صينية الدجاج
  1. Marinade chicken pieces using lime juice, crushed garlic, ground coriander, turmeric, ground ginger, ground cinnamon, salt and pepper.
  2. Take a deep baking tray or oven-proof dish and fill the base with fresh separated onion rings.
  3. Finely chop potatoes, green pepper, tomato, carrots, courgette or any other desired vegetable and mix with the marinating chicken along with halved garlic cloves, tomato juice and tomato paste and mix evenly. Place ontop of the onions
  4. Place foil over the top and bake in the oven at 200°C for 30 to 40 mins until the chicken and vegetables have cooked, and clear juices run from the chicken.

Chicken Skewers

دجاج بالسيخ
  1. Trim any fat from chicken breast and cut into medium chunks.
  2. In a bowl prepare a marinade of salt, ground black pepper, ground coriander, grated fresh ginger, turmeric, lime juice, vinegar, yoghurt, honey, and crushed garlic.
  3. Marinade the pieces of chicken in the marinade for 1 to 3 hours.
  4. Once ready chop onion, tomatoes and any bell pepper variety (green, red and yellow) into medium chinks that are the same size as the chicken pieces.
  5. Alternate between skewering one piece of the vegetables and the chicken pieces until the skewer is full, avoid over crowding the skewers.
  6. Barbecue over hot coals and turn every few minutes until the chicken pieces are evenly cooked, slightly charred and runing clear fluids.

Chicken and Cheese Rolls

فطيرة دجاج بالجبنة
  1. Beat chicken breast with a meat tenderiser until flat then season with salt, pepper, vinegar, and crushed garlic.
  2. Place mozzarella slices and cheese slices on top of the chicken breast then roll into a sausage shape then hold together with tooth picks, and cover in flour.
  3. Beat eggs and season with salt, pepper and spread over the chicken rolls to cover all sides.
  4. Cover in breadcrumbs then deep fry in hot oil until golden and then finish in the oven in a pyrex dish for 10 to 15 minutes until the chicken runs clear fluids. Serve warm.

Djaj Mahshi

دجاج محشي
Stuffed chicken
  1. Thoroughly clean a whole chicken and drain in a sieve.
  2. In a large bowl prepare a marinade of salt, pepper, ground coriander, ground cardamom, garlic and vinegar and spread all over the inside and outside of the whole chicken.
  3. Make a filling of parboiled rice, precooked minced meat, premade fried onions, parboiled carrots and potatoes and mix together evenly.
  4. Stuff the filling into the chicken then use cooking thread and a trussing needle to seal both ends.
  5. Part boil the stuffed chicken in water with a whole peeled onion, tomato, halved green pepper, and halved garlic cloves until the meat is just cooked white all over, 12 to 15 mins, then place into a large oven-proof dish and cover with a thin layer of salt.
  6. Bake in an oven at 200°C for 30 to 40 mins until crispy and golden-brown.


Chopped chicken liver lightly fried for 2 to 3 minutes with lime juice, crushed garlic and seasoned with salt, pepper and ground coriander can be added to stuffing.

Fried Crocodile

تمساح مشوي
  1. Marinade crocodile meat in salt, lime, vinegar, crushed garlic, ground coriander and ground cumin for 1 to 2 hours.
  2. Lightly coat with the dried spices and barbecue over hot coals while turning every few minutes until evenly cooked.


shallow fry on both sides in oil or butter until cooked.

Crème Caramel

كريم كراميل
  1. Gently warm up 1 litre of milk in a pan until it releases its distinctive warmed milk smell.
  2. Beat 4 eggs and add fresh vanilla seeds, warmed milk, 1/2 cup sugar and mix well until foamy.
  3. Sieve this mixture of the vanilla seeds and prepare the baking apparatus.
  4. Crème caramel is cooked in a hot water bath using a deep baking tray with individual glass or ceramic holders, a.k.a. bain-maire. The water level should be half way up the individual holders. A bain-maire can also be used for a more precise cook but it not used by most Sudanese when making crème caramel.
  5. Prepare caramel by heating sugar in a non-stick pan until it caramelizes into a thick syrup. Avoid overheating the sugar as it burns quickly after caramelizing.
  6. Pour the caramel into the pudding holders then followed by the sieved milk and egg mixture. Do not fill the holder as the pudding expands slightly when fully cooked.
  7. Place the pudding holders in a water bath or bain-maire and bake on a gentle heat (150-170°C) in the oven or on the hob for 30 mins or until fully cooked.
  8. When the crème caramel has cooked remove from the oven or hob, allow to rest for a short while then cool in the refrigerator for 3 hours.
  9. Remove from the fridge and place a serving plate upside down onto the pudding holder then flip to right side up and serve with a dessert spoon and fruit salad.


single cream or coconut milk added to the milk and egg mixture.

Fried Cow’s Tongue

لسان البقرة
  1. Boil a thoroughly cleaned cow’s tongue in water with whole onion, green pepper (tomato-optional) and add salt, peppercorns, cardamom pods, halved garlic cloves and coriander seeds for 40 mins to 1 hour.
  2. Remove from the pot and discard the outer layer of the tongue, then shallow fry the inner tongue in hot oil for 5 to 8 minutes until crispy.

Damirga Flour

دقيق الدامرقة
Fermented Millet Flour for Asida

  1. Whole millet grains are soaked in water and lime juice for 4 to 6 days until fermented, its colour should turn a darker shade and have a sour taste.
  2. The fermented grains are then rinsed and air-dried until completely dry then ground into damirga flour which is used to make asida.




Fish Head Soup

شوربة رأس السمك
  1. Remove 2 to 4 fish heads from the body.
  2. Discard the eyes and gills and wash the heads with water, lime, vinegar and sorghum flour.
  3. Add to a pot of water, with a peeled and quartered onion then season with salt, peppercorns, cardamom seeds, cinnamon sticks, and bay leaves, with chopped carrot and celery.
  4. Boil on medium heat for 20 mins then sieve the stock and serve with lime juice and dill or parsley.

Fish Soup

شوربة السمك
  1. Boil water in a large pot and add halved onions, halved garlic, large thin pieces of chopped ginger, celery, carrot and potato, and season with salt, cracked peppercorns and grains of Selim.
  2. Add the cleaned and if possible de-boned fresh or dried fish to the water and simmer for 10 to 12 mins.
  3. Finish with lime juice and chopped herbs of choice: coriander, thyme, dill.
  4. Stir in a tablespoon of peanut butter if desired.

Fish Kofta

كفتة السمك
  1. Boil fish fillets in water with salt and pepper for 8 to 10 mins until cooked, then sieve and gently mash into a mince.
  2. Boil peeled potatoes chunks in another pot and season with salt, then sieve the potatoes and mash with a knob of butter.
  3. Make a kofta mixture two-thirds mashed fish and one third mashed potatoes and mix together. Add breadcrumbs if needed for better hold.
  4. Mix in ground cumin, ground coriander, pepper, salt, and finely chop fresh parsley.
  5. Make finger shaped pieces out the minced mixture and cover in a coat of seasoned beaten eggs then a layer of bread crumbs then deep fry in hot oil until golden.

Fateerat Abu Angareib

فطيرة ابو عنقريب
Knotted Pastry
  1. Source wood ash from untreated burned wood, it should be a fine pale grey powder, with no solid pieces. Then prepare a batter of 6 eggs, 1 tea spoon vanilla, 1 tablespoon ash, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 tablespoon baking powder.
  2. Mix the ingredients with enough flour to make a malleable dough.
  3. Spread into a flat dough and cut into long thin strips, 20 X 5cm.
  4. Wrap into a loose pretzel knot and gently press on the layers where they meet to seal the pastry, then deep fry until golden.

Fateerat Goulash

فطيرة الجلاش
Meat Pastry
  1. Source phyllo pastry sheets ready made from a local store.
  2. Separate a few sheets individually and spread out on kitchen paper in order to let them dry out a little.
  3. Individually brush the sheets with melted butter or ghee and then stack on top of each other to make a pile approximately half a cm thick (4 to 5 sheets).
  4. Add a layer of filling on top of the sheets. Filling may be anything of choice: minced meat, chicken pieces with white sauce, mixed fried vegetables, cheese or an similarly appropriate combination to the above suggestions. Sweet fillings include: crushed nuts with sugar, ground cinnamon, dessicated coconuts.
  5. Prepare an identical pastry layer as previously mentioned and place on top of the filling layer.
  6. Cut into the preferred shaped pieces, i.e. squares, triangles, or diamonds, then glaze in melted ghee and bake in the oven until the pastry cooks golden all over.
  7. Some prefer to pour a bit of luke-warm milk on top to soften the crispy pastry slightly before serving.

Gunzu (Mullah Ganu)

Blended Black-eyed Pea Stew
  1. Soak black-eyed peas overnight or for 6 to 8 hours.
  2. Boil the beans with chopped onion for 30 to 40 mins until the beans are soft when pressed.
  3. Blend the beans onion and water together to form thick mixture and season with salt, pepper, ground coriander, and crushed garlic.
  4. Add more water as needed to make into mullah consistency, which should be similar to a thick gravy.
  5.  Serve with a sorghum asida.

From the Blue Nile region.


Stuffed Intestines
  1. Take lamb large intestines and clean thoroughly with salt water, and lime juice or vinegar, then cut into 20cm long strips.
  2. The cleaned intestines can be salt cured and smoked to give them a softer texture, but it's not essential.
  3. Prepare a stuffing of chopped lamb meat or lamb liver, salt and pepper, garlic, spices and chopped onion.
  4. Place the stuffing comfortably inside the intestines and seal with trussing needle and cooking thread.
  5. Heat up a barbecue and cook the intestines over hot coals for 6 to 7 mins each and turn occasionally until releasing clear fluids. The stuffing should cook inside the intestines and be soft and juicy, the cooked intestine is also edible.

From Eastern Sudan.


Millet Balls in Chilled Milk (Dessert)
  1. Mix coarse millet flour in cool water to make a thick lump free batter.
  2. Bring about 1 litre water to a boil in a large pot add a pinch of salt, sugar to taste, ground ginger, ground cloves, ghee, then pour in the batter and stir. The dough should thicken as it heats into a thick porridge consistency, similar to asida, add more water if too thick.
  3. Simmer gently for 8 to 10 mins then leave to one side to cool into a thick dough.
  4. Make medium sized balls out of the cooled dough, between golf ball and tennis ball in size, then roll into coarse millet flour to cover the exterior.
  5. Prepare a mixture of milk, yoghurt and sugar to semi-submerge the balls and pour into one large serving bowl or individual bowls. Place 2 to 3 millet balls in the large bowl or 1 ball in the individual bowl and add ice cubes to keep the mixture cold. Serve cool.

From Darfur.


Ground cinnamon, ground cardamom, and ground grains of Selim, dried chillies and black peppercorns may be used to season the porridge in the pot. You can ferment the uncooked batter in a warm dark area for 24 hours until slightly sour then cook the fermented batter into a thick porridge.


بسكويت الغريبة
Clove-centred Biscuits
  1. Whisk together 1 cup icing sugar into 2 cups of refrigerated ghee until making a white fluffy mixture as the ghee dissolves into the sugar, an electric mixer is helpful since mixing by hand requires a lot of effort.
  2. Fold in 4 cups of flour to make the soft and malleable dough then refridgerate for 10 to 15 mins so that the ghee doesn't melt.
  3. Make small dough balls that fit into the centre of the palm and place on a greased baking tray.
  4. Press down gently on each of the balls to slightly flatten them out then place a clove in centre of each biscuit, with only the head is exposed.
  5. You may wish to refridgerate the biscuits again for 8 to 12 mins to stop them from cracking.
  6. Bake in an oven at 160°C for 15 to 20 mins until only just cooked and the base is fully golden, the rest of the biscuit should cook into a cream/beige colour.


Add a pinch of salt and a tablespoon of vanilla extract to the dough mixture.


Hamam Mahshi

الحمام المحشي
Stuffed Pigeon
  1. Cleaning
    Source 4 whole pigeons and 4 pigeon livers from a local supplier and ensure the heads, feet, guts, food sacks in the neck and feathers are all removed from each pigeon. Wash the whole pigeons and livers in salt water and lime juice to remove their gamey odour.
  2. Prepare the Stuffing
    Dice the pigeon liver into small pieces. In a small pot on medium heat, heat oil and fry grated or finely chopped onion until golden brown and nearly caramelised. Add the diced liver, salt and pepper, ground coriander, ground allspice, ground cinnamon, stir for a minute then add rinsed rice. Reduce the heat slightly to gently fry for a further 1 to 2 minutes to sear the liver and rice, then add ½ cup water. Reduce to a low heat and cover to parboil the rice for 10 minutes. The rice should soak up all the water in the pot. Remove from the heat, add roasted pine nuts and golden raisins then carefully fold to finish making the stuffing.
  3. Stuffing and Cooking
    Use cleaned hands or a small spoon to stuff the pigeon with the stuffing into the main cavity, as well as the neck and under the skin of the breast plate, you’ll need to use fingers to make a space. Fill these spaces until ¾ full to leave enough room for the rice to expand slightly. Use a trussing needle and cooking thread to seal all cavities then twine to wrap the wings into the body around the middle and tie the legs together. Bring water to the boil in a large pot, use enough water to just submerge all four stuffed pigeons. Add quartered onion, cardamom pods, salt, whole peppercorns, halved garlic cloves, bay leaves and a good pinch of each of the spices used to season the stuffing. Gently boil the stuffed pigeons uncovered on a gentle heat for 20 to 30 minutes, until the meat is cooked tender and the water reduces. Remove from the pot, cut and discard the twine then pan fry in hot oil or ghee for 10 minutes while turning every 2 to 3 minutes until the skin becomes crispy and golden-brown all over. Serve one pigeon per person with potato fries and/or a garden salad.  


  • Use chicken liver instead of pigeon liver if easier to source.
  • Add 1 teaspoon ground cumin, 1 teaspoon ground ginger or ½ teaspoon nutmeg with the other spices as desired.
  • Add a quartered tomato or 1 stock cube to the boiling water with the quartered onion.
  • Bulgar wheat can be used instead of rice.
  • Add a small handful of roast almond flakes with the roasted pine nuts to the stuffing.


To manually remove the feathers, place the pigeon in warm water for 20 minutes then pull out the feathers by hand and then with tweezers for the final few. 

Hilu Gamurdeeen

حلو قمر الدين
Apricot Pudding
  1. Sourse apricot paste sheets from a local supplier of Eastern Mediterranean foods store.
  2. Soak 1 to 2 apricot sheets cut into smaller pieces in a small amount of water for 30 mins to 1 hour, then heat them in a pan on low heat for a minute while until able to stir into a thick paste.
  3. Add 1 cup of custard or to taste and stir until well mixed.
  4. Pour the warm apricot paste into small serving bowls and allow to cool slightly.
  5. Gently press 1 to 2 peeled almonds in the centre of each pudding while soft as a garnish then refridgerate until ready to serve.  


Garnish with coconut, chopped figs or cashew nuts.


Imat Al Tarbas

عمة ترباس
Fried Spiral Pastry
  1. In a large mixing bowl add 1 kg plain flour, 2 beaten eggs, 3 tablespoons of warm ghee, ½ teaspoon vanilla, ½ teaspoon baking powder, ½ teaspoon salt and mix until the consistency becomes similar to pizza dough.
  2. Carefully cut the top and bottom of a used standard 300g tin with a can opener and make sure to remove any paper to leave only a metal tube.
  3. Roll out the dough using a roller to a thickness of 1cm then cut into into long thin rectangles. The width of each strip should be around 6 to 8cm and the length about 25 to 30cm. This is important for when the dough is cooked inside the tin.
  4. Slash each rectangular strip diagonally along its length and leave ready on the side for frying.
  5. Heat oil in a large pan for deep frying and place kitchen towels to one side.
  6. Place the hollowed tin into the hot oil and make sure the oil level reaches ¾ of the height of the tin. Since the rectangular sheets were cut to be no higher than half of the height of the tin, they should fit in easily and fry completely.
  7. Take a piece of flattened dough and gently roll over from the short edge into a loose spiral shape that would fit into the tin, ensure you leave a space in the centre and between the layers.
  8. Gently lower the loose spiral strip into the tin of hot oil.
  9. Use a fork to poke down any pieces outside of the oil and to hold it below the surface then allow it to cook for 3 to 4 mins until golden.
  10. Carefully remove the tin first, and then the fried pastry and repeat until all the strips are fried.
  11. Make sugar syrup by heating water, sugar, lemon juice, cinnamon pieces and cardamom pods, and pour over the loose spirals.
  12. Sprinkle crushed peanuts over the top so they stick to the syrup, shake off any excess and serve.

This dessert is commonly prepared at weddings and other celebrations in the capital region of Khartoum, Om Durman and Bahri. It is named after a piece of clothing worn by a famous Sudanese singer called Kamal Tarbas, who is known for wearing an enormously oversized Sudanese ima, a large white piece of fabric worn as a head wrap my Sudanese men, similar to a turban. Imat Al Tarbas translates to - Tarbas' ima.


Aubergine Jam

مربى الباذنجان
  1. Boil peeled aubergine chunks with small amount of water for 10 to 15 mins then blend into a thick paste.
  2. Heat sugar in a pot and allow to caramelise into a thick syrup.
  3. Add the blended aubergine, jelly cubes (or water and jelly powder), and a few drops of lime juice and a pinch of ground cinnamon.
  4. Let the jam cool and thicken then transfer to a sterile jar (sterlise a jar by boiling it in water for 2 mins to kill the bacteria which can cause the jam to spoil). Use as a jam and store refridgerated for up to 1 month.

Other Jam options:

Pumpkin, orange or any other fruit or vegetable, and follow the method above.

Watermelon Jam
  1. Take 1½ kg fresh watermelon and carefully remove all the seeds.
  2. Blend seedless watermelon pieces then heat in a pot on medium heat and keep simmering while uncovered for 20 to 25 minutes until the water level reduces to half of the original volume, add 200g (1 cup) sugar and stir until it forms a thick syrup.
  3. Use either 1 tablespoon gelatin powder or gelatin cubes to further thicken the syrup into a jam.
  4. Leave to cool, then pour into a sterile jar (as above) and store in the refrigerator for up to 1 month.


  • The same method can be used to make guava and pumpkin marmalade. Guava seeds can be hard to remove by hand, therefore blend peeled guava with 200ml water then sieve out the broken seed pieces.
  • Use ground gum Arabic instead of gelatin powder.
  • Add ½ teaspoon lime salt to the syrup, it will counteract the sweetness and help preserve the marmalade.

Jeer Flour

دقيق الجير
Refined Millet Flour

    1. Peel whole millet grains of their outer shell and mix in water to help remove the shells from the grain, alternatively used peeled millet grains sourced from a specialist store.
    2. Rinse and soak the peeled grains in a khumara (fermenting jug) or sealable container with enough water to fully submerg the grains and store in a cool, dark area for 4 to 5 days.
    3. After this initial fermenting period, discard half of the water and replace with fresh water, stir the grains in the fresh water and ferment again for a further 4 to 5 days. The grains should give off an aroma of fermentation, break apart easily and taste mildly sour.
    4. Rinse the grains thoroughly then evenly spread onto a tray of kitchen towels and air-dry for 15 to 18 hours, ensuring that air is allowed to circulate for even drying. Placing the grains directly under a fan will speed up the drying process.
    5. Once the grains are completely dry, grind them into a fine flour using a powerful blender or grinder, 4 to 5 minutes.
    6. Add cold water to the flour until and mix into a runny and lump free batter. Sieve the runny batter mixture through a fine cotton sieve, such as a cheese cloth or clean pillow case.
    7. Discard the larger fibrers which should be pale yellow and keep the sieved water which should be closer to white. Repeat once with the sieved batter.
    8. Leave the sieved white batter to settle and ferment in a cool area for 1 day. The jeer flour should settle at the bottom and separate from the water which should be on top.
    9. Carefully decant and store the water layer without distrurbing the white flour, because this water (jeer water) can be used to make jeer asida (below).
    10. After removing the top layer of jeer water, there may also be a thin layer of pale yellow fibres (from the shell) on top of the pure white geer flour, discard this top layer to leave a thick white paste. The jeer layer should be a thick white paste after removing most of the water.
    11. Spread the paste onto a tray and leave to air-dry for 10 to 12 hours into a fine white powder, this is jeer flour and can be used to make jeer asida. Store for up to 6 months.

    Jeer Asida

    عصيدة الجير
    Refined Millet Dumpling

    1. Mix jeer flour (see above) with cold water, dissolving any lumps, into a thick smooth batter.
    2. Heat jeer water (see above) or boiling water in a large pot until simmering then pour the jeer batter intowater and mix. The batter should thicken as it heats into a consistency similar to porridge, add more water if needed.
    3. When the porridge simmers gently for 4 to 5 minustes, remove from the heat and pour into greased heat-resistant bowls and leave to cool into a jelly-like dumpling, this is a jeer asida, or asidat jeer, and can be served with any mullah (see below).

      Jarad Mahamar

      جراد محمر
      Fried Grasshopper

      A.k.a. sahr al leil, meaning the staying up late, because the grasshoppers are often caught at night.

      1. Rinse recently deceased grasshoppers in salt water until thoroughly clean.
      2. Season with salt, pepper, ground onion and mixed spices.
      3. Deep-fry in hot oil for 3 to 5 minutes into a crunchy texture.


      the fried grasshoppers can be ground into a powder and used to make a mullah as a meat substitute, similar to kawal powder.


      Cheesy Batter Balls
      1. Prepare a ligeimat batter (see recipe) and add crumbled white cheese or braided cheese and nigella seeds. Heat oil in a large pan and place kitchen towels to one side.
      2. One by one make large ligeimat and deep-fry in hot oil for 4 to 6 mins into a crunchy texture.
      3. Serve warm with honey drizzled over the top or on the side.

      This recipe is known in Port Sudan and by Egyptian-Sudanese families.


      Khamis Tweira

      خميس تويرة
      Nutty Millet Cereal
      1. Mix millet flour with yeast, sugar, salt and lukewarm water into a batter with a similar consistency to pancake batter.
      2. Leave to ferment in a warm area for 30 minutes or until bubbles appear on the surface, the mixture tastes mildly sour and releases a distinct bread-like aroma of fermenation.
      3. Cook the fermented millet batter on a greased hotplate cooker or large flat pan (saaj) on medium to low heat and spread the batter very thinly using a plastic card, palm batter spreader (gargareeba) or crepe maker utensil to make wafer thin, dry and crispy sheets, similar to kisra.
      4. Carefully turn the sheets over on the hotplate until they gradually become drier and more toasted until dry and crunchy then spread out on a tray to one side in a ventilated area to further dry for 2 or 3 hours.
      5. Once all the kisra are completely dry break the large dry sheets into smaller bite size pieces, similar to breakfast cereal.
      6. Add small dry date pieces (or date sugar), crushed peanuts, toasted sesame seeds and season with ground cinnamon, ground cardamom and ground galangal. Gently fold together until mixed.
      7. Either eat as a dry snack, or as a cereal with milk or water. Adding milk or water causes the cereal to fluff up slightly and absorb the liquid.

      Kisra Asalia

      كسرة عسلية
      Honey (Sweet) Kisra
      1. Prepare fermented sorghum batter by mixing sorghum flour and water into a consistency similar to pancake batter and add a tablespoon of yoghurt that is close to its expiry date so that plenty of healthy microflora can activate the batter.
      2. Leave this mixture in a warm area to ferment for 10 to 14 hours, depening on the local temperature.
      3. Once the sorghum batter has fermented, mix sprouted millet flour with water into a similar consistency and mix the batters together.
      4. Ferment this batter in the same manner as before for a further 6 to 8 hours. The batter should ferment easily and have a sweet taste.
      5. Prepare to cook the batter on a greased hotplate cooker or large flat pan (saaj) on medium heat.
      6. Pour 150ml of the batter into a thick line then use a plastic card or gargareeba to spread the batter into a flat crepe. The kisra of this batter is known as kisra asalia, meaning honey kisra.

      Kisra with water

      كسرة بالموية
      1. Take prepared kisra and spread onto a plate.
      2. Add a little water to wet the kisra sheets until soft then mix together into a coarse mixture.
      3. Add finely chopped spring onion, tomatoes, and season with salt, black pepper, sesame seed oil, red chilli powder, lemon/lime juice, ground coriander and ground cumin to taste.
      4. Mix into the kisra paste and serve.


      Red onion can be used instead of spring onion.


      Yoghurt & Onion in Chicken Stock
      1. Boil a whole chicken in water and add salt, cardamom pods, peppercorns, whole onion, garlic cloves, a whole green pepper cut in half and seeded. Simmer into a broth then sieve and shallow fry the chicken until crispy on all sides. Altenatively use premade chicken broth.
      2. In a separate bowl mix 1 kg yoghurt with 4 to 5 tablespoons flour and mix together then leave on the side for 30 mins.
      3. Pour the yoghurt and flour mixture into the sieved chicken stock and mix well while on gentle heat until thickening slightly and not too thick, but so that it can be eaten like porridge.
      4. Deepfry onion strips in hot oil until golden brown, then sieve and dry on kitchen towels.
      5. Serve the kishk into bowls with some fried onions folded into the kishk and some fried onions as a garnish on top.

      This recipe is Egyptian and is also commonly prepared by Sudan's Egyptian-Sudanese community.

      Kharuf Mahshi

      خروف محشي
      Stuffed Whole Lamb
      1. Preparing the Lamb
        Begin with sourcing a whole young lamb, the type of lamb used for this dish are small and young by general standards. This is so the meat tenderises quickly and cooks easily. The head should be removed and the main opening should be from the breast bone down to the groin and all internal organs and innards removed, but keep the liver and kidneys for later. Ensure the main body of the lamb, and its liver and kidneys are all thoroughly cleaned with salt water and lime juice or vinegar. Allow the main body to drip dry with the opening facing down. Once clean, prepare the lamb for marination by piercing the meat all over the whole body with a long thin knife or skewer. Make a plentiful mixture of: salt, pepper, ground coriander, ground cardamom, ground nutmeg, vinegar, ketchup, mustard and crushed garlic, and olive oil or another oil. Cover the whole body inside and out with the marinade mixture.
      2. Stuffing
        Parboil enough rice to stuff three quarters of the lamb, also parboil chopped carrots and potatoes. Fry onion until golden then add chopped green peppers then chopped lamb kidneys and chopped liver (both thoroughly cleaned in salt water). Combine the stuffing mixture of parboiled rice, chopped parboiled carrots, chopped parboiled potato, fried onions, green peppers, chopped lamb kidneys and chopped lamb liver, tinned sweetcorn or peas, tinned beans of choice if desired, a selection of desired nuts and raisins such as almonds, cashew nuts and golden raisins. Season with salt, pepper, cardamom pods and any other desired spices such as cinnamon, nutmeg, allspice and cloves. Stuff the lamb with the mixture and sew the main opening closed with a trussing needle and cooking thread.
      3. Cooking
        Pour any remaining marinade over the lamb and boil in a pot of water (large enough to fit the lamb) with the legs bound together to help it fit if needed. Boil until the meat is tender or until the water has reduced significantly. Thicken the remaining stock water, add chopped celery, butter or ghee, salt, pepper, desired spices and use as a basting liquid to keep pouring on the lamb if it gets dry throughout the oven cooking process. Remove the cooked lamb and leave to rest to one side. Either barbeque, pan-frying or bake in a large (or underground) oven to cook until crispy on the outside. If you are able to find a large enough oven, slow cook for 2 to 4 hours, turning every 45 minutes.


      Raw vegetables can be used in the stuffing mixture. May not need the boiling stage if the lamb tenderises quickly, in which case part boil the stuffing ingredients and slow cook the raw stuffed marinated lamb in an oven or over a barbecue until crispy and draining clear fluids.


      Lamb Offal Stew

      Kamunia is lamb offal such as intestines and stomach, sometimes heart, lungs and other innards prepared in a sauce and eaten with bread. These innards need to be thoroughly cleaned in warm salt water and lime juice before cooking.

      1. Pan-fry cleaned offal in oil with chopped onion, green pepper, dried chilli, ground cinnamon, cardamom, coriander, black pepper, salt.
      2. Once cooked add tomato paste/puree and tomato juice or blended tinned chopped tomatoes.
      3. Mix well, add crushed garlic and simmer until oils rise to the surface then serve.


      Clean the innards by boiling in hot water and remove the froth that forms on the surface, then drain and mix with lime juice and salt then rinse.

      Kabda Nayya

      كبدة نية
      Raw Lamb’s Liver
      1. Wash the raw liver with water (or salt water), then cover in flour and rinse off, instead clean in a minimal amount vinegar and rinse until clean.
      2. Drain in a sieve and discard the thin membrane from the exterior, by peeling off carefully.
      3. Cut a raw lamb’s liver into large cubes and serve with dakwa, a spicy peanut sauce and raw onions.


      Chop onion, green pepper, green chilli then add crushed garlic, salt, ground pepper, ground coriander and lime juice. Add the raw chopped liver and leave for a short while in the marinade. Either serve as is or fry the liver and marinade mixture in hot ghee, moving for 3 to 4 mins until the liver is just seared and slightly cooked, then serve.


      Sudanese Kubeba/Kibbeh
      1. Clean a piece of beef with little fat, mince finely and mix with bulgur wheat in equal proportions to make a coarse meat coating for the kubeba.
      2. Season the mixture with ground cardamom, salt, pepper, garlic, cinnamon and ground coriander.
      3. Shape the meat into a hollow balloon shape with a hole at one end. These takes practice but is easiest done on the palm and around the opposite index finger then slowly make the kubeba bigger.
      4. Fill the hole with premade minced meat and deep fry until golden.

      Sudanese Kofta (Kufta) in Tomato sauce

      كفتة بدمعة
      1. Peel and chop to size for blending onion, carrots, potatoes, green pepper, garlic cloves, courgette, parsley and dill.
      2. Blend the vegetables into a smooth paste then mix with minced meat and season with salt, pepper, ground coriander, ground cumin and a stock cube, and mix together until even.
      3. Add breadcrumbs to firm up the mixture and mix together by hand into a malleable form.
      4. Make individual balls from the mixture and deep fry in hot oil until golden brown.
      5. To make the tomato sauce: fry tomato paste in some oil and add sugar, salt, pepper and a dash of vinegar, 200ml tomato juice and 200ml water. Leave to cook for 10 to 15 mins until the oils rise to the surface then add the fried kufta and simmer for 6 to 8 minutes. Serve with rice or bread.


      The following spices may be added at the blending stage: ground nutmeg, ground allspice, ground cinnamon, ground cardamom.

      Sudanese Kunafa

      كنافة سودانية
      1. Separate kataifi (kunafa) pastry loosely in a large bowl.
      2. Melt ghee or butter in a pot and pour evenly over the pastry and mix together.
      3. Cover with a light coat of sugar and mix again until even.
      4. Separate the sugared pastry into 2 equal portions. Place the first half of the pastry in a deep, greased baking tray to make a base while closing any gaps.
      5. Prepare the filling by crushed or lightly blended peanuts and adding ground cinnamon and sugar.
      6. Cover the first layer with the filling until evenly spread over the entire base.
      7. Cover the filling layer with the second layer of pastry, press down lightly on the top layer then bake in the oven at 180-200°C for 15 to 20 minutes until golden.
      8. Prepare a sugar syrup by dissolving sugar in water and add fresh lime or orange juice and a cinnamon stick. Since the kunafa is hot as it comes out of the oven, ensure the sugar syrup is cold before pouring over the kunafa.
      9. Let the dish rest briefly before serving. The kunafa is served either its baking dish or flipped upside down on a serving plate and cut to squares for servings.

      Lamb’s Brain Soup

      شوربة مخ الخروف
      1. A lamb’s brain should be responsibly sourced and thoroughly cleaned by soaking in cold salt water for 15 mins.
      2. Boil water in a large pot then gently place the brain into the boiling water and season with salt, black peppercorns, 5 whole/halved garlic cloves, whole/halved white onion, 4 to 5 cardamom pods and leave on the boil 4 to 5 mins then reduce the heat to simmer on a gentle heat for approximately 45 mins while covered.
      3. The brain is then removed from the stock and chopped into small pieces and returned to the soup for serving.
      4. Served with lime juice and garnish with fresh coriander.


      Blend the brain to a smooth consistency.

      Lamb Rugag Casserole

      رقاق بلحم مفروم
      1. Carefully brush a thin layer of ghee onto unbroken rugag sheets (prepare this recipe first) and stack 5 to 6 layers into a casserole dish. Soak the sheets in lukewarm milk until making a soft base that's about 1cm thick.
      2. Add a layer of premade mince meat with fried onion and tomato, and layer a top layer of glazed rugag sheets in the same manner as before.
      3. Cover with some more lukewarm milk to soak the top layer then bake in oven at 180°C for 15 to 20 mins or until golden.

      Sudanese Lasagna

      لزانيا سودانية
      1. Boil lasagna sheets for 10 to 15 mins in a large pot with salt and oil, they will naturally stick to each other while boiling so try to separate with a spoon.
      2. Drain and wash in cold water to stop them cooking then keep to one side.
      3. Make the tomato sauce in a large pan frying minced meat, chopped green peppers, tomato paste, tomato juice, salt, pepper, coriander, sugar, vinegar, garlic, onion and oregano or basil.
      4. Make the sauces quite saucey as this cooks the rest of the lasagne.
      5. Then make the bechamel sauce by melting butter in a pot and slowly adding flour and milk into a thick sauce then season with salt, white pepper and ground nutmeg.
      6. Arrange lasagna sheets on the base of the casserole dish followed by the tomato sauce, then a layer of lasagna sheets, then tomato sauce again, then bechamel sauce, then lasagna sheets, then tomato sauce, then bechamel sauce, then grated cheese.
      7. Leave to rest for a short while (or refrigerate) then bake in the oven at 200°C until golden then rest again to cool slightly before cutting and serving.


      Parmesan cheese in between layers after white layer.


      Mashaltat (Fateer)

      فطير مشلتت
      Layered Pastry
      1. Mix 2 cups plain flour with 1 cup semolina flour in a large bowl.
      2. Add 4 tablespoons of powdered milk, 3 tablespoons of sugar, half a tablespoon of salt and enough water to make a soft and malleable dough.
      3. Leave to rest for 10 mins then make palm sized dough balls.
      4. Use a roller to spread each dough ball into a thin rectangular piece of dough.
      5. Fold the rectangule in half lengthways, then fold again but only half way this time, finally bringing the last layer to meet the previously folded layer.
      6. These layered pastries are cooked one after the other on a greased hot plate cooker (saaj) until golden on both sides.
      Sweet Mashatat

      The mashatat pastry can be savoury or sweet, if making them sweet; add a further 2 tablespoons of icing sugar as garnish as well as ground cinnamon or cardamom if desired.

      Mish bel Gurasa

      مش بالقراصة
      Spicy Yoghurt with Pancakes

      1. Mix yoghurt, finely chopped tomatoes, white onion, crushed garlic, salt, red chilli powder, cumin, sesame oil.
      2. Add premade mish and serve with premade gurasa (make these recipes first).

      Makhalal Bazenjan

      مخلل الباذنجان
      Pickled Aubergine
      1. Leave the skin on the aubergine and cut into quarters but only three quarters of the way down so it exposes  the centre. Otherwise cut into long thin strips.
      2. Cover the aubergine thinly in oil all over then pan-fry or grill in the oven until part cooked then remove and leave to cool.
      3. Make a mixture of green chillies, crushed garlic, salt, lime juice, vinegar and mixed olives.
      4. Place the cooked aubergine in a pickling jar and cover with the mixture and fill to the top with vinegar, lime juice and hot water.
      5. Leave to pickle in a cool dark area for 2 to 5 days, until the aubergine becomes soft and ready to eat.

      Mullah base (Shorba)

      Lamb Stock
      1. Add rinsed and trimmed pieces of lamb to a large pot on medium heat, add boiling water until covering the water by a couple of inches and season with salt.
      2. Discard the creamy froth that forms as the water boils.
      3. Add a whole peeled white onion, some cardamom pods and season with peppercorns or ground pepper.
      4. Reduce the heat then place a lid on the pot (or semicover) and leave simmering for approximately for 45min to 1 hour until a stock solution has formed.
      5. Sieve the solution but save the meat to one side and add the relevant ingredients for the type of mullah you desire (see separate recipe). Then return the meat and serve warm with kisra, asida or gurasa.


      Cinnamon sticks, bay leaves, whole garlic cloves, whole tomato added to the boiling water.

      Mullah Ni'emia

      ملاح النعيمية
      Tomato and Yoghut Stew
      Haja Laila’s ni'emia
      1. In a large pot fry tomato paste in oil and ghee to 1 to 2 mins, then sieve out the oil and ghee and leave to one side.
      2. Add the sharmoot or raw minced meat onto the fried tomato paste and mix evenly while spreading the raw minced meat to cook.
      3. Add premade fried onion paste and some water to loosen the mixture.
      4. Add 1 kg of yoghurt and mix well.
      5. Season with ground pepper, salt, ground coriander and small amount of cumin.
      6. Keep mixing continuously then add a small amount of peanut butter or cooking peanut paste.
      7. Keep mixing until it boils then add dried okra to thicken the stew, stir well into the stew.
      8. Finally return the sieved oil and ghee as a garnish but do not mix into the stew and leave spread on top then serve warm with kisra, asida or gurasa.
      Haja Najwa’s ni'emia
      1. Cut 3 medium white onions horizontally into circles, add to a large pot and fry gently in oil until golden brown.
      2. Add half a tin of chopped tomatoes, half a tablespoon of tomato puree and one large tablespoon of peanut butter.
      3. Season with black pepper, salt and 2 stock cubes then mix evenly until the tomatoes are cooked, you should notice a change in colour to a deeper red when cooked.
      4. Once you are happy the tomatoes have cooked take them off the heat and add a tub and half of thick set yoghurt (+/-375g) and 2 tablespoons of plain flour.
      5. Use a hand blender to blend the ingredients together while in the pan and then bring to the boil over 5 mins while stirring gently.
      6. Place into a serving dish and garnish with warm ghee.
      Haja Sameera’s ni'emia
      1. To a large pot add ½ cups of oil, 1 cup sharmoot, 1 teaspoon cinnamon, 1 teaspoon black pepper, 1 tablespoon ground coriander, 2 teaspoons ground ginger, 2 teaspoons sugar, ½-¾ tablespoon salt, 2 tablespoons vinegar.
      2. Blend premade onion paste with water then add 3 tablespoons tomato paste and blend again then leave to the side in a bowl.
      3. Blend 2 large tubs of a thick creamy yoghurt, 2 heaped tablespoons of flour and a tablespoon of salt, stir and scrape the sides with a spoon to dissolve the flour and blending again until smooth and consistent to ensure all the flour is dispersed evenly.
      4. Begin by heating the spices in oil on a medium to high heat while constantly stirring until they begin to sizzle and froth slightly, it should only take 2 mins.
      5. Add the blended onion and tomato paste to the spices in oil and mix well and keep constantly moving until this too comes to the boil then simmer to allow the tomato to cook slightly, taste for flavours and balance out if required.
      6. Add the blended yoghurt and flour mixture and mix well again, keeping the stew constantly moving. It will slowly thicken and begin to boil.
      7. Once it boils, reduce the heat and let it simmer gently until oils rise to the surface.
      8. Garnish with melted ghee which is folded in slightly then serve.


      A thick creamy yoghurt such as Greek or Turkish style is ideal for this stew. Keep the stew constantly moving to ensure it mixes well and do not leave unattended as it is on a medium to high heat and can stick, burn or split easily.

      Mullah Kajek

      ملاح الكجيك
      Dried Fish Stew
      1. Obtain dry bayad fish; a cod like fish, alternatively another dry fish can be used.
      2. Rehydrate the fish using water or steam and take out the bones.
      3. Fry grated or finely chopped onions in a pan with some oil until golden then add the rehydrated boneless fish.
      4. Mix in dakwa (peanut paste) then seasoning and add desired spices such as: salt, pepper, ground coriander, ground cumin and mix together into the fish pieces.
      5. Build a sauce by adding tomato juice, tomato paste and some water to make a stew’s consistency.
      6. Allow the ingredients to cook together on a gentle heat then add crushed garlic and ground okra (weka) to bind the stew together.


      The drying process is done by gutting and cleaning the fish then filling the stomach with salt for 1 to 2 days, this cures the meat and it's then air dried it into a perfectly preserved dry fish.

      Mullah Warag

      ملاح الورق
      Black-Eyed Pea Leaf Stew
      1. Gently fry 2 to 3 finely chopped white onions in a large oiled pan until golden and soft.
      2. Add small to medium chunks of lamb on the bone and season with salt, black ground pepper, ground coriander and stir.
      3. Add 3 to 4 cups of water to cover the meat and cover on a gentle heat.
      4. Prepare the leaves by picking them individually, rinsing them in water then leave them to dry on the side.
      5. Remove the meat from the pan once tender.
      6. Add the leaves to the stock along with 1/2 tablespoon sodium bicarbonate to help break down the leaves then bring to the boil for 20 to 30 mins until the leaves soften.
      7. Once the leaves soft enough to break apart easily when pressed, add dried okra to thicken the stew a deep green colour.
      8. Handblend the stew until smooth then add crushed garlic fried in hot oil and serve with kisra.

      Mullah Fool (Busara)

      ملاح البصارة
      Sudanese Busara
      1. Prepare a tabeekh base by frying onion, ground coriander until golden then add 2 cups water.
      2. Add peeled fava beans or remove their outer casing by lightly blending then soaking in water to allow the shells to float and separate from the inner bean.
      3. Add all the white inner bean pieces to the tabeekh base and lamb on the bone and simmer until both the beans and the meat have cooked. Keep stirring as beans should breakdown and begin to disperse into the stew making it thicker.
      4. Add salt, tomato paste, season with pepper, cumin and coriander then serve with bread. 
      Suad’s Busara
      1. Black-eye peas or haricot beans are soaked overnight then boiled for 15 to 20 mins until soft.
      2. Mash the beans and mix with dried jew’s mallow leaves.
      3. In frying pan fry chopped onion until golden then add crushed garlic, ground coriander, cumin, parsley, dried onion, salt and pepper then pour into the mashed beans.
      4. Garnish with caramelized onion.

      Mullah Wekab

      ملاح الويكاب
      Milk Stew
      1. Grain-less sorghum stems (heads) are burnt to their ashes, then the ashes are soaked in water for 2 days, add more water as it evaporates to maintain soaking them.
      2. The water is then sieved and left to dry on a tray in the sun until it crystallises.
      3. Wekab crystals are formed and help break down leaves and beans and other vegetables into a soft and edible texture. 
      4. Slice an onion into rings and fry in some oil until golden.
      5. Pour 1 cup milk onto the fried onion rings then add salt, crushed garlic, a stock cube, add 1 tablespoon ground okra (weka), add wekab crystal powder or sodium bicarbonate. Stir then handblend slightly to break down the onions. Serve with kisra or asida.

      Mullah Sharmoot Abyad (Weka)

      ملاح الشرموط الابيض
      Mullah Sharmoot Abyad
      1. In a large pot fry premade onion paste with sharmoot (meat powder), salt, pepper, ground coriander, crushed garlic. 
      2. Add water or stock solution then add ground okra and stir well into a thicker stew.
      Mullah Sharmout Ahmar
      1. Fry onion in oil until golden. 
      2. Add a chopped tomato and sharmoot.
      3. Add water, salt, pepper, garlic, dried coriander.
      4. Allow to stew together then finish with ground okra and stir well.

      Mullah Sabarouk

      ملاح السبروق
      Okra Leaf Stew
      1. Pick the leaves of an okra plant and rinse in water then add to a mullah base (above) along with sodium bicarbonate to break down the leaves.
      2. Trim the head and tail from fresh okra then chop into small pieces and add to the mullah base and simmer until they soften.
      3. Use a mufraka or hand blender to blend the stew lightly then serve.  

      Mullah Miris

      ملاح المرس
      Lamb Fat Stew
      1. Separate lamb fat, ideally the soft fats such as from the tail and discard any hard fats, meat or blood.
      2. Clean the fat thoroughly with salt water and lime juice or vinegar and drain in a sieve.
      3. Mince the fat, place to a sealable container and mix with ground sorghum rock (kombo) or sodium carbonate salt (atroon or natron) and mix together until evenly distributed.
      4. Cover with cool water until then seal the container and leave to ferment in a warm area for 24 hours.
      5. Remove the lid and drain the water from the fat, the fat should be softer than before.
      6. Knead the fat together by hand until soft and evenly mix together then ferment again (without water) in the same container for a further 2 days.
      7. Remove and mix together then handblend until smooth.
      8. When ready to cook the stew, boil black-eyed peas in a large pot on medium heat and add sorghum rock (kombo) to help break down the beans.
      9. Once the beans are cooked, handblend with boiled water into a thick paste, add more water if too thick.
      10. Add the fermented fat to the pot and dried meat powder (sharmoot) mix into the blended beans. Season with salt, pepper, crushed garlic, ground cumin, ground coriander and then finish by adding ground okra (weka) to bind the stew.
      11. Serve with asida or kisra.


      Cured Innards
      1. Thoroughly clean a lamb's raw gall bladder, stomach, lungs, and liver in salt water and lime juice.
      2. Marinade in lime, salt, pepper, chilli.
      3. Cut the gall bladder to pour its bile poured onto the marinated cuts then mix. Leave to rest and serve raw.

      Mahshi Krum

      محشي كرم
      Stuffed Cabbage Leaves
      1. Separate cabbage leaves and boil with cumin seeds until only just cooked, with still come bite to them then sieve.
      2. Separate the thick outer pieces from the cooked cabbage and arrange them at the bottom of the empty pan and add a small amount of water to soak the bottom layer. Use the softer inner pieces of cabbage to be stuffed stuff with the filling.
      3. Grate onion onto a greased frying pan and stir until golden then add premade minced meat and mix.
      4. Add crushed garlic, lime juice, ground cardamom, ground coriander, ground cinnamon, salt, pepper, a tablespoon of oil, a tablespoon of tomato puree/paste and parboiled rice. Save some sauce for the end.
      5. Fill the softer cabbage leaves with the stuffing and roll into long thin pieces about 2 inches wide, ensuring they are rolled tightly.
      6. Layer the rolled pieces of stuffed cabbage onto the base layer of harder cabbage leaves and arrange in one or two layers depending on the serving.
      7. Add the remainder of the stock on top and place on a medium heat for 30 mins.
      8. Cover the pan with a slightly smaller sized plate so that the plate rests on the stuffed cabbage leaves and not the edge of the pan, this stops them unravelling, then cover the pan with its lid.
      9. Once the cabbage is cooked, remove from the pan and serve warm or cool.


      Blended Goat Meat and Offal Stew

      Goat, cow, or lamb offal and meat pieces in a spiced tomato stew.

      1. Thoroughly clean goat stomach and other internal organs such as kidneys and liver with water, salt and vinegar and chop into smaller bite size pieces.
      2. Boil chopped goat stomach, chopped offal and some chopped meat in a pot of water with 3 to 4 grains of Selim (kumba) for 10 to 15 minutes until parboiled.
      3. Drain most of the water from the pot but leave about 100ml with the boiled innards then blend into a coarse paste.
      4. In a separate pot fry onion until soft then add the coarse paste and stir until the meat cooks.
      5. Add a little water, chopped carrot, chopped green pepper, crushed garlic, pepper, ground coriander, and a small amount of oil then fold together until cooked all over.


      gangal, ginger, coriander, bay leaves. Add peanut butter, lime juice and garlic to thicken the stew. Fresh onion added with the blended stomach.

      Matfi (Fish)

      مطفي سمك
      Fish cooked in tomato, onion and tamarind sauce

      Better known in Suez and Hijaz regions, and brought into Port Sudan by travellers.

      1. Soak tamarind pods for 1 to 3 hours in enough water to just submerge them.
      2. Use hands to mash the tamarind pods into a smooth paste then sieve to remove the seeds and any fibres leaving a smooth paste.
      3. Fry grated onion until golden then add the tamarind paste, some water, blended tomato/tomato juice.
      4. Season with salt, garlic, cinnamon stick and cardamom pods.
      5. Sear fish fillets marinated in garlic, lime, cumin and salt, then add to the sauce.
      6. Add green chillies, fresh dill or fresh coriander in final minutes then serve with bread.


      Levantine Aromatic Rice Dish
      1. Boil a small piece of chicken on the bone with salt, pepper, garlic and whole cardamom pods.
      2. Once the chicken is cooked, remove from the chicken stock and boil rice in the chicken stock.
      3. In a separate frying pan, fry the piece of chicken in oil to sear the outside slightly crispy, then leave to rest for a while until the sauce is prepared.
      4. Make a sauce by frying chopped onion in oil until turning golden brown and add blended tomatoes/ tomato juice and tomato paste.
      5. Season with salt, pepper, ground coriander and Arabic spices, also known as Arabic Masala. Mix and allow to cook.
      6. Tear off pieces of the seared chicken and add to the sauce.
      7. Mix the rice with the sauce and stir until the colour is even.
      8. Roasted cashew and pine nuts on a lightly oiled pan and add to the rice mixture along with raisins and fold in gently then serve.

      The word maglouba literally means turned over, since the dish is normally cooked in a pot into different layers then turned over onto a serving plate thus retaining the shape of the pot.

      Mullah Karkade (Mullah Karasu)

      ملاح الكركديه
      Hibiscus Leaf Stew
      1. Pick young hibiscus leaves from the plant.
      2. Rinse then boil for 15 to 20 mins.
      3. Pound the boiled leaves in a pestle and mortar into coarse paste, not a smooth paste.
      4. Make  small balls from the pounded leaves and leave out to dry in a warm and well ventilated area.
      5. Once the leaves are completely dry, grind into a coarse powder and added to premade mullah tagalia with peanut butter.
      6. Leave to simmer for 5 to 8 mins before serving.

      Mullah Aswad Bel Dakwa

      ملاح اسود بالدكوة
      Aubergine and Peanut Stew
      1. Fry finely chopped onions (or short strips) in a large pot with oil or ghee and season with mixed spices of choice, such as cumin, nutmeg, paprika, cinnamon and allspice.
      2. Once caramleised add medium pieces of chopped aubergine and fold into the onions. The aubergines should soak up all the spiced oil and begin to cook slowly.
      3. Keep turning the aubergines for even cooking and add more oil or ghee if they stick.
      4. Meanwhile prepare 4 to 6 tablespoons of peanut paste (dakwa) and loosen with a little water then further dilute with lime juice and grated ginger (or ginger juice).
      5. Season this mixture with salt, pepper and the same spices as before.
      6. Once the aubergines are nicely seared add water until just submerging them and add a stock cube.
      7. Stir and scrape the base and allow the stock to simmer for 2 to 3 minutes.
      8. Add the seasoned peanut paste into the stock and stir gently without breaking the cooked aubergines.
      9. Allow the mixture to simmer for a further 5 to 10 minutes until oils rise to the surface.
      10. Add ground okra (or corn flour) to bind the stew into a thick gravy when cooled.
      11. Serve with asida, kisra, gurasa or bread.

      Mullah Kawal

      ملاح الكَول
      Sickle Pod Stew

      Mullah kawal is a stew made of fermented sickle pod leaves. Fermented sickle pod powder (kawal) is used by western groups as a meat substitute. The fermented leaves have a strong pungent smell which lingers on the hand for a long time after eating. Kawal has many health properties and is regarded as a superfood.

      1. Take clean, undamaged leaves from a sicklepod plant, blend into a paste and ferment in a sealable container with active yeast. Traditionally, sorghum leaves are placed with the paste and the leaves are changed every 3 days with a total fermenting time of 2 weeks.
      2. Take the fermented paste out to of its container and allow to dry out completely, then grind into a powder.
      3. The powder can be used as a substitute to ground beef, also known as sharmoot.
      4. To make mullah kawal, use the powder instead of sharmoot when making mullah tagalia.
      5. Cook onions in a pan, add salt, spices, water, (optional: tomato paste / juice) and cook until the stew develops then finish with dried okra. Serve with asida or kisra.


      Ground kawal powder can be sprinkled over mullahs or any other foods to give greater nutrients and meal fortification.


      Snowflake Pastry
      1. In a large bowl mix together 3 eggs, 1 tablespoon vanilla extract, ½ teaspoon baking powder, 1 teaspoon salt, 5 cups of milk, ½ kg plain flour, and a small cup of sorghum flour.
        A special metal rod with adjustable ends is used to create the mashabak. The adjustable ends are shaped like snowflakes and have many elaborate patterns.
      2. Firstly hold the metal rod with the snowflake end inside the hot oil to heat up. 
      3. From the hot oil place the rod into in the dough mixture and leave there for a few seconds to take up the dough. 
      4. Place the rod back into the oil and leave there until the pastry comes off either by itself or with a slight tap or shake of the rod. Allow the pastry to cook until golden on both sides then dry on kitchen paper.
      5. Make sugar syrup by heating sugar in some water, adding a few drops of lime or orange squeeze and a cinnamon stick then reduce into a syrup.
      6. Pour the syrup on top and garnish with dessicated coconuts. Serve warm or cool.


      Banana Pudding
      Gurasa mukhbaza
      1. Prepare gurasa pancakes by cooking fermented wheat flour into thick pancakes.
      2. Cut the pancakes into small bite-sized pieces and served with mashed banana, honey and ghee.


      sugar, yoghurt, cinnamon, sesame sweet (tahneeya), raisins and crushed mixed nuts

      Asida mukhbaza
      1. Prepare asida by cooking wheat flour in boiling water until forming a thick porridge, pour the porridge into greased bowls and leave to cool then turn upside down into a serving plate.
      2. Asida is a dumpling with jelly-like texture. Add mashed banana, honey and ghee or samna.


      yoghurt, cinnamon, raisins and crushed nuts.

      From Yemen and commonly prepared in Port Sudan and other areas in Sudan.

      Sudanese Macaroni

      المكرونة باللحمة
      1. Fry premade minced meat in a deep pan with 100ml water, half a tin of chopped tomatoes and one or two tablespoons of tomato paste.
      2. Add sugar, vinegar, crushed garlic, ketchup, mixed spices and any hot sauce or other sauce that would work such as Worcester sauce, and mix together.
      3. Boil macaroni pasta until only just cooked.
      4. Drain the water and return the cooked pasta to the empty pot then add the sauce and mix together.


      Sweet Gurasa
      1. Pour either wholemeal or plain flour, ideally a mixture of both, into a mixing bowl with salt, an egg, vanilla extract or pods and mix into a runny batter with either water with powdered milk or fresh milk.
      2. Adjust the consistency until batter is slightly runnier than regular pancake batter and fry in a frying pan in plenty of oil so that the heat and oil lift the gurasa off the base slightly then flip to cook the other side, its thickness is more similar to a crepe than a pancake.
      3. Serve with honey or icing sugar mixed with crushed peanuts and ground cardamom.


      Add sugar to the batter if you want to make the crepe sweet.





      Potato Koftas Stuffed with Cheese

      كفتة البطاطس بالجبنة
      1. Boil then mash potatoes and season with salt, pepper and butter.
      2. Shape the mashed potato into a small ball with a space in the center then fill with a tablespoon of a soft cheese, mixed cheeses, or grated cheese mixed with premade minced meat.
      3. Seal the stuffed ball with the potato mixture and roll to give it a good firm hold.
      4. Roll the balls in a batter of seasoned eggs and then coat with breadcrumbs and deep fry in hot oil until golden brown.


      add finely chopped parsley or coriander to the mashed potato mixture.

      Petit Fours Biscuits

      بسكويت بيتي فور
      1. In a large mixing bowl add ¾ cup measure ghee, 1 cup icing sugar, 1 teaspoon baking powder and 1 teaspoon vanilla extract (or half a teaspoon fresh vanilla), whisk together into a creamy paste.
      2. Beat three eggs and mix into the creamy paste into a thick yellow cream.
      3. Add flour until thick enough to make into a soft biscuit dough.
      4. Flatten the dough with a roller into a thickness of about 2cm and use flour to stop it sticking.
      5. Cut the dough into shapes using small biscuit cutters and bake in the oven at 180°C until golden.
      6. Spread jam on the base of the baked biscuits and stick together, garnish with icing sugar then serve with tea or other hot drinks.


      caocao powder can be added into the mixture.






      Roub yoghurt
      1. Heat milk to 80°C in a pot then transfer to a sterile and sealable glass jar and allow milk to cool to 45°C before adding a heaped tablespoon of expiring yoghurt and stir.
      2. Leave the mixture rest at room temperature for 10 to 14 hours to allow the bacteria to ferment the milk slightly and make it taste sour.
      3. The yoghurt should separate from the water (whey) therefore drain the water to make a thick roub or mix the whey and thick yoghurt together to make a runnier roub.
      Roub buttermilk
      1. Add 1 tablespoon vinegar or lime juice to every 1 cup of milk, and leave to stand for 15 to 20 mins.
      2. The mixture should become more acidic and turn into buttermilk.

      Traditionally roub (buttermilk) was made by vigerously shaking milk inside a lamb skin until a type of butter called fursa is produced.

      Rice Pudding

      رز باللبن
      1. Rinse white rice and parboil for only 6 to 8 mins with cinnamon or cardaom pods until half cooked.
      2. Add milk to about double the quantity of the water and a bit of salt then constantly stir the rice as it can stick to the base.
      3. The rice grains might begin to break up while stirring but this is good as this helps the final consistency by bringing the starch out which binds the pudding.
      4. Add more milk or single cream if you find the consistency is becoming too thick.
      5. Add sugar to taste and mix into the pudding. 


      garnishes include dessicated coconut, ground cinnamon, whole or lightly crushed nuts, dried fruit such as raisins.


      الكيكة الرملية
      Sand Cake

      Ingredients: 3 eggs, ¾ cup sugar, ½ cup oil, 1 ½ cups yoghurt, 1 ½ cups flour, 1 tablespoon baking powder, ½ can condensed milk, 2-3 tablespoons semolina flour

      1. Grease a round baking tin about 25cm in diameter and preheat the oven to 160°C.
      2. Beat 3 eggs in a mixing bowl and keep mixing gently while slowly adding 3/4 cup sugar, then add 1/2 cup oil and finally 1/2 cup yoghurt, in this order.
      3. Use a spatula to fold in 1/2 cup flour and 1 tablespoon baking powder then pour the mixture into the greased cake tin and flatten the surface with the spatula.
      4. Bake in an oven at 180°C until golden brown and fully cooked inside. Check the inside is cooked by piecing with a knife and notice if any batter sticks to the knife, which should come out clean if fully cooked.
      5. Allow the cake to cool for 5 mins. While the cake is still warm flip the tin upside down on the serving dish.
      6. Spread half a can of condensed milk even over the top of the cake.
      7. In a dry pan heat 2 to 3 tablespoon of coarse semolina four until golden brown then scatter evenly on top of the cake to stick to the condensed milk and serve with tea or other hot drinks.

      Shatat Murain

      شطة المرين
      "Two Bitters Chilli"
      1. After slaughtering a lamb, two fluids must be found then combined to make this chilli. The first is a green fluid found at the beginning of the small intestines. It is normally found close to the liver and stomach, handle the small intestines in away that allows any green fluid to collect in this area then drain into a bowl. The second is the bile found in a yellow sack behind the liver, known as the gall bladder.
      2. Mix the two fluids together in a bowl then heat gently in a pan on a low heat.
      3. Season with salt, pepper, peanut butter, chilli powder and lastly lime juice.
      4. Serve as a side dip for fried meat dishes. It is said this dip allows meats to be digested easier.

      Saligat Samak

      سليقة سمك
      Fish Broth
      1. Fry finely chop onion, tomato, celery and crushed garlic in a pot for 8 to 10 mins.
      2. Add boiling water and bring to a boil until a vegetable stock forms then add pieces of fish on the bone or chopped fish fillets and boil for 8 to 10 minutes.
      3. Serve on a bed of kisra soaked in the broth and place the cooked fish on top.

      Salatat Bambay

      سلطة البامبي
      Sweet Potato Salad
      1. Boil peeled and chopped sweet potato pieces for 10 to 15 mins, then drain and mash with butter and milk and seasoned with salt and pepper.
      2. Add lime juice, crushed garlic, vinegar, peanut butter, yoghurt. Garnish with parsley and olive oil.

      Salatat Roub

      سلطة روب
      Yoghurt and Cucumber Salad
      1. Pour into a bowl: yoghurt, crushed garlic, season with salt, pepper and cumin then mix together.  
      2. Taste and re-add the required ingredients to the desired amount. Add diced cucumber, grated and rinsed carrot then fold into the yoghurt. Garnish with ground cumin and olive oil.


      50g sweetcorn or 1 tablespoon dried mint added to the salad.

      Salatat Cousa

      سلطة الكوسة
      Courgette Salad
      1. Chop a courgette into either circles or cubes and deep-fry in hot oil until golden-brown.
      2. Mix taheeni paste with a small amount of water to loosen it slightly.
      3. Add lime juice, vinegar, yoghurt, and olive oil then mix into a runny sauce.
      4. Season with crushed garlic, salt, black pepper and mix well into a smooth sauce.
      5. Gently fold in the fried courgette pieces and serve.


      Pan-fry grated courgette in the pan then mix with the remaining ingredients.

      Salata Beida

      سلطة بيضاء
      White Salad
      1. Steam or part boil potatoes, courgette, carrots.
      2. Mince or blend the vegetables together and add yoghurt, taheena, lime, vinegar, salt and black pepper.
      3. Taste and adjust the seasoning as desired.


      Make a bechamel sauce from melted butter, flour and milk then add to the seasoning ingredients.

      Salatat Kurum

      سلطة الكرم
      Cabbage Salad
      1. Discard the outer leaves of a cabbage until reacing the softer smaller fresh leaves and main body of vegetable.
      2. Finely chop or grate the remaining part of the vegetable.
      3. Season with black pepper, yoghurt, salt and green chillies.


      Add crushed garlic and lime juice with the seasoning.

      Salatat Jir-Jir

      سلطة الجرجير
      Arugula Salad
      1. Separate and wash arugula leaves, then chop tomato and Armenian cucumber.
      2. Arrange onto a serving plate and dress with lime juice, olive oil, salt, vinegar.


      Add chopped raw onion.


      Meat Powder
      1. Cut raw beef into thin strips of fat free meat.
      2. Leave to dry on a clothes line in the shade for at least 3 days until dry and hard.
      3. Use a food processor, grinder or pestle and mortar to grind or blend the dried beef into a fine powder. 


      To avoid insects, ground coriander and flour are caked on the surface and easily dusted off after the drying process. This forms a protective layer that keeps the meat hygienic during the drying process. If you don’t live in a hot country, it is preferable to mince the beef then dry it indoors on a large tray placed under a fan for 2 to 3 days, turning every 6 hours, until it completely dries and crumbles when handled.


      Clarified Butter or Ghee
      1. Warm butter in a pan on gentle heat until the liquid begins to simmer.
      2. Simmer gently for 10 to 15 mins until it begins to develop small brown deposits at the bottom. 
      3. Remove from the heat and sieve through a fine metal sieve to remove the brown deposits, leaving behind the clarified butter.


      Samna used to be made from congealed milk layers forming on the top of milk, jumad. This was collected in large quantities and cooked into samna by slowly cooking off the fat to leave behind the butter oil.

      Shayat Djaj

      شية دجاج
      Barbequed Chicken
      To prepare the whole chicken
      1. Try to find a young chicken since this type of chicken is better for barbequing whole.
      2. Wash in flour, salt and lime juice to remove excess dirt before trimming the fat from the chicken and leave to dry in a sieve.
      3. Prepare the marinade in a bowl by mixing salt, ground black pepper, ground coriander, ground or grated fresh ginger, lime juice, vinegar, yoghurt, honey, crushed garlic, curry powder and turmeric. Season with other spices as desired, this is just a rough guide.
      4. Marinade the chicken for 4 to 8 hours. 
      5. When ready to barbeque, add some olive oil to the chicken and use any remaining marinade to brush onto the chicken if it gets too dry while on the barbeque.
      6. Leave on the barbeque until evenly cooked and running clear fluids then serve.
      To prepare chicken pieces
      1. Rinse chicken pieces in water, salt and lime juice then trim off any excess fat.
      2. Slash through the skin with a sharp knife to allow the marinade to penetrate deep into the meat then leave on the side to dry in a sieve.
      3. Blend together onions, tomatoes, green pepper, chilli and garlic cloves.
      4. Place the chicken pieces in a large mixing bowl, add the blended vegetables and mix together.
      5. Season with salt, pepper, ground coriander, ground cardamom, ground cinnamon, ground nutmeg, ground turmeric, vinegar, honey, olive oil and mustard.
      6. Mix well then evenly spread all over the chicken pieces, then cover and leave to marinade for 3 to 5 hours at room temperature.
      7. Barbecue over hot coals while covered for 15 to 20 minutes.
      8. Turn each piece every 4 to 5 minutes until visibly well done on all sides, slightly charred and running clear fluids.
      9. Chicken meat is fully cooked when it is firm and white, and should not be soft and pink.
      10. Ensure the meat is fully cooked then serve with taheena, spicy peanut dip (shatat dakwa) or another condiment.


      50ml ginger juice or lime juice added to the marinade. 2 to 3 tablespoons yoghurt added in the marinade for creamy taste. 2 tablespoons melted ghee instead of olive oil gives a richer buttery taste.

      Shayat al Manadeel

      شية المناديل
      Caul Fat Koftas

      An omentum, a.k.a. caul fat, is a layer of the peritoneum that surrounds abdominal organs of mammals. This layer can be found during the slaughter of a lamb and removed to make this dish. It is a clear membrane covered with a network or fatty deposits, and resembles a fishing net. The clear parts of this membrane with minimal fatty deposits are used for this dish. 

      1. Carefully remove the membrane found on the outside of a lamb’s abdomen.
      2. Remove the thin and clear sections of the membrane, as these sections are used in preparing this dish.
      3. Gently clean these pieces with salt, vinegar and water then flatten out on a clean work surface.
      4. Mince together raw minced meat, onions, green pepper, garlic, salt, pepper, ground coriander, ground nutmeg, ground cardamom, Szechuan peppercorns, and fresh parsley.
      5. Carefully cut the membrane into medium squares and large enough to wrap around a filling.
      6. Make thick koftas from the minced mixture and place in the centre of each square membrane.
      7. Gently fold over the sides of the membrane and tuck in the top and bottom to seal koftas with a membrane wrap.
      8. Place onto skewers and barbecue over hot coals, turning every 3 to 4 minutes until evenly cooked and slightly charred yet retaining its juices.


      السجق السوداني
      Sudanese Sausages
      Homemade Sausages
      1. Mince lamb tenderloin and season with salt, pepper, garlic, coriander, cinnamon, nutmeg, and allspice.
      2. Thoroughly clean a lamb's small intestines in salt water and vinegar and fill with the above sausage mixture then tie each sausage off and repeat until complete.
      3. Sudanese sausages are made long and thin, similar to fingers.


      Use a sausage machine to make the sausages.


      Sudanese sausages can be bought from most Middle Eastern butchers as well as other variations of Middle Eastern sausages. North African merges sausages are a good alternative, and even chipolatas can be used.

      Preparing Sudanese Sausages
      1. Separate the sausages individually and heat in large frying pan or wok until releasing its juices.
      2. Once the juices are at the bottom of the pan, add one or two chopped tomatoes, green peppers and lime juice from a whole lime.
      3. Cover and leave on gentle heat for 20 to 25 mins.
      4. Remove cover and keep sausages moving until dry and evenly cooked, finish with crush garlic and more lime juice then serve.

      Samak Mahshi

      سمك محشي
      Stuffed Fish
      1. Clean a large fish, ensure the scales, gills and guts are all removed leaving a sizable clean area to stuff.
      2. Slash the inside and outside of the fish carefully.
      3. Prepare a marinade of crushed garlic, lime juice, salt, pepper, chillies, ground coriander and ground cumin.
      4. Add chopped dill, parsley/coriander and onion rings then stuff the fish with the marinade as well as coating the outside.
      5. Cover the fish with foil or baking paper then bake in the oven at 200°C for 12 to 15 mins.
      6. Check and remove the cover once cooked and bake for a further 5 mins to allow the fish to dry slightly before serving. Serve with taheeni dip. 


      Barbecue the fish over hot coals. Check the fish has cooked then unwrap the foil and barbecue for a further 5 minutes to reduce the liquids and crisp up the skin.

      Samak Kazab

      السمك الكذاب
      "Fake Fish"
      1. Cut a whole aubergine lengthways so it has the silohuette of a fish and cut into 1cm thick strips.
      2. Prepare a plate of flour, a plate of breadcrumbs and a large bowl of beaten eggs seasoned with salt, pepper, ground coriander, and ground cumin.
      3. Firstly coat the aubergine in a thin layer of flour, then dip into the seasoned eggs, then finally cover in a layer of breadcrumbs and deep fry in hot oil until golden brown on both sides.
      4. Dry the fried aubergines on kitchen paper before serving


      Add fish sauce to the seasoned eggs for fishier flavour.

      Sharbak Pudding

      1. Boil peeled pumpkin pieces for 20 to 30 mins until just cooked.
      2. Drain most of the water but keep about 250mls and handblend into a smooth mixture.
      3. Place on a medium heat and add flour, custard, sugar and vanilla extract and mix until it thickens slightly and the flour cooks.
      4. Serve warm in small bowls with a garnish of crushed nuts, gishta (set cream), yoghurt and/or ground coffee.


      Vermicelli Pasta Dessert
      1. To a pot add 2 tablespoons of ghee, 1/2 teaspoon salt, add the shi'eria (vermicelli pasta), water to only just cover the vermicelli and boil for 10 to 12 mins until most of the water evaporates and the pasta cooks aldente. 
      2. Add milk or single cream to the pasta and leave on the heat until it reduces slightly and thickens.
      3. Garnish with cinnamon and/or coconut.   


      Pasta Balls Dessert
      1. Acini de pepe, small fine balls of pasta are used to make suksukania, add these to a pot with some salt, oil or ghee and cook in the oil until golden.
      2. Add water until the water level is about 1cm above the pasta.
      3. Keep on a gentle simmer while uncovered until most of the water evaporates and the pasta is cooked aldente, 10 to 12 mins. 
      4. Add single cream, sugar and garnish with ground cinnamon.


      Sesame Sweets
      Sesame seed sweet
      1. Caramelise sugar in a pan on medium heat then add sesame seeds and mix evenly.
      2. Spread the mixture onto an oiled baking tray then bake in the oven until hard.
      3. Leave to cool then break up into small pieces.
      Peanut sweet
      1. Caramelise sugar in a pan on medium heat and add peeled and roasted peanuts or peanut butter then mix into a paste.
      2. Spread onto an oiled baking tray and bake until hard and brown.
      3. Leave to cool then break up into small pieces.


      1. Make the pastry by dissolving 2 tablespoons butter and 1/2 tablespoon salt into 500g plain flour then mix with plain yoghurt into a soft dough.
      2. Make dough balls from the dough and leave to rest to one side.
      3. Meanwhile prepare the filling of panfried minced meat seasoned with salt, pepper, ground coriander, ground ginger, crushed/chopped garlic, red onion, fresh coriander and chopped dill.
      4. Flatten the pastry balls into a circle or square, fill with 1 tablespoon of the filling then seal into a tightly packed samosa.
      5. Repeat using all of the pastry and filling.
      6. Deep fry (or air-fry) the samosas in hot oil until golden on all sides.
      7. Drain from the oil and leave to dry on kitchen paper before serving warm.


      Freeze or refridgerate the samosas for at least 15 to 20 mins to give them better hold before deep frying. You may also freeze them over a longer period and fry them at your own convenience.


      Tabeekh ruz

      طبيخ الرز
      Tabeekh Shabat/Shamar Akhar
      1. Make a standard tabeekh base then add 1 tablespoon tomato paste, 250ml tomato juice tomato juice, 1 small cup rice (50g), and 20g chopped dill.
      2. Leave the rice to cook for 15 mins, stir occasionally. The stew should be quite saucey and the rice should be spread out into the stew.

      Tabakh Ruhu

      تبخ روحو
      "Cooks Itself"

      This is a dish similar to al gatar gam mentioned in our cookbook, in that all the ingredients are added together at the start and then left to “cook itself” as its name suggests.  

      1. In a large pot of oil fry onions, tomatoes, pepper, ground cinnamon, ground cardamom, ground coriander, chopped meat on the bone, crushed garlic, rice and some water then leave covered for 30 mins.
      2. Check the stew and uncover to allow the oils to rise to the surface.
      3. Once it has stewed, add salt and stir then garnish with dried mint.

      Tarkeen (Maluha)

      التركين (الملوحة)
      Fermented Fish Stew

      The dish from northern Sudan and is usually eaten during winter months. Tarkeen is its Nubian name, while Maluha is the Arabic name for this dish. 

      Warning: This dish is an acquired taste and is a pungent smelling fermented fish dish. It may not be to everyone’s taste.

      1. The type of fish used is called a Nile sardine (seer, small fish), and must be gutted and cleaned thoroughly in salt water and flour.
      2. Stuff the main cavity with a mixture of coarse salt, chilli and lemon juice, and store in a glass, metal or clay container that closes tightly until the fish cures.
      3. The curing process can take between two weeks to one month or even longer depending on the temperature. The fish should have cured into a grey paste when fully cured.
      4. Remove the larger pieces of salt and carefully rinse off the remainder.
      5. Mix together into a loose grey paste, it may need to be soaked in some water until the mixture becomes a looser paste that is less salted.
      6. Prepare a base of fried onion, tomato paste and tomato juice.
      7. Place a sieve over the stew and pour the tarkeen paste into the sieve, the liquid and some fermented flesh should pass and the bones should remain in the sieve.
      8. Mix the tarkeen water into the stew.
      9. Add water, lemon juice and flour to help hold it together and cook for 15 to 20 mins. 
      10. As it cooks add ground coriander, crushed garlic, ground cumin, black pepper, and chillies.
      11. Mix evenly and serve with onions, chilli, lime juice and gurasa


      add flour to the fried onions before adding tomato paste and juice to bind the stew. 

      Maluha baida

      Same recipe just without tomato paste or juice.This dish is known by two names, Tarkeen and Maluha.


      Um Halibain

      ام حليبين
      "The One with Two Milks"
      1. Mix millet flour, milk and a pinch of salt into a thick batter similar to gurasa.
      2. Cook on a greased pan on medium heat into thick, hard and dry pancakes, cook both sides until golden.
      3. Break into smaller pieces and add to a bowl of warm milk.
      4. The first milk is in the batter, and the second is served with the cooked sheets, like a breakfast cereal.

       Um Jingir

      ام جنقر
      Fermented Millet Pudding
      1. Boil water and add ground cinnamon, cardamom, garangal and slowly add millet flour dissolved in cool water into the boiling spiced water, like making madeeda.
      2. Add sugar and yoghurt or roub (fermented/soured milk), then leave to stand for 1 day at room temperature to ferment slightly into a sweet yet tangy pudding/drink.

      Um Takashu

      ام تكشو
      Dried Jute Leaf Stew
      1. Follow exactly the same recipe as mulukiya but use dry Jews’ mallow leaves instead of fresh ones.
      2. This dish can be made into a tabeekh or and a mullah and needs a garlic gadha.
      3. It can be made with meat on the bone or with minced meat.

      Vegetarian Um Fit-Fit

      ام فتفت بي الخضار
      1. Boil beetroot and carrot until cooked then chop into cubes.
      2. Add chopped fresh onion, lime juice, vinegar, garlic, peanut paste, salt and the gall bladder from a recently slaughtered animal.
      3. Mix together then serve.

      Um Fit-Fit

      ام فتفت
      Tripe Stew
      1. Thoroughly clean a sheep's stomach with salt water and lime juice or vinegar.
      2. Chop into smaller pieces then pan-fry with some oil and add onion, tomato, green pepper, crushed garlic, peanut butter and lime juice.
      3. Season with salt, pepper and ground coriander.

      Um Ali

      أم علي
      Egyptian Puff Pastry Dessert
      1. Puff pastry sheets are used to make Um Ali. Begin by separating each sheet individually and then placing them one after the other on a baking tray.
      2. Bake the sheets in an oven until golden.
      3. In a medium pot add a litre and a half of milk, 2 to 3 tablespoons of sugar and a small amount of double cream and place on a gentle heat.
      4. Take the pastry sheets out of the oven when cooked and crispy.
      5. Try to break the sheets up into different sized pieces and prepare to arrange them into layers in the serving dish. The dish can be a regular pyrex dish of the desired size.
      6. Prepare the sweet filling mixture of crushed sweetened mixed nuts, raisins and coconut flakes.
      7. Place 50% of the sheets at the bottom of the serving bowl, then add the filling, then 25% of the sheets, then more filling, then the last 25% of the sheets, then a final layer of the filling on top.
      8. Gently pour the warmed milk over the layers and filling then place in an oven for approx. 15 mins or until the excess milk has been soaked up to leave a small amount of milk which makes the sauce.
      9. Remove from the oven and serve warm, cutting the dish into the servings.


      Traditionally raisins and coconut flakes are used but any dried fruits, nuts and seeds can be used. Use 50% milk and 50% single or double cream for a thicker sauce. 

      Ilham’s croissant Um Ali
      1. Use day old croissants, so they are a bit harder than newly bought. Cut the croissant horizontally in half then grill the insides for 5 mins or until they are golden on all sides.
      2. Arrange the toasted pieces of croissant on the base of a oven dish in 2 layers along with yellow raisins, roasted and crushed nuts, almond powder/flakes.
      3. In a pot warm milk with some sugar and stir gently. Once the milk is warm, add double cream and warm again. Pour sweetened cream evenly over the oven dish filling 1/3 of its depth.
      4. Bake in the oven until golden brown and garnish with crushed nuts and almond powder/flakes.

      Umnia’s Fingers

      صوابع أمنية

      Ingredients: 2 cups of flour, 2 tablespoon sugar, 1 tablespoon vanilla extract, 1 teaspoon salt, 3 tablespoon butter, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon of yeast, mixed nuts, coconut flakes, sugar, ground cinnamon, ground cardamom.

      1. Prepare 2 cups of flour, 2 tablespoons sugar, 1 tablespoon vanilla, 1 teaspoon salt, 3 tablespoon butter, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon of yeast.
      2. Begin by mixing the flour and butter until powder balls form, then add the egg, and mix. Then add the vanilla, salt, sugar and yeast.
      3. Pour milk and mix into a dough, which should not be too soft or too hard.
      4. Knead it out until consistent. Make into small balls then leave to one side to ferment.
      5. Prepare the filling by breaking into small pieces almonds, walnuts, peanuts then mix with blender into smaller crunchy pieces but not ground to a powder.
      6. Add coconut flakes, sugar, ground cinnamon and ground cardamom.
      7. Once the dough balls have fermented sufficiently, flatten them out into rectangular sheets.
      8. Place the filling into the centre of each rectangular dough sheet and roll over tightly along its length then fold the sides to seal into a tightly packed parcel.
      9. The finger parcel can be gently squeezed by the hand to remove any excess air then smoothed out to prepare for frying.
      10. Fry the fingers in hot oil until golden then and transfer directly into to sugar syrup for a short while to soak it up then leave to dry before serving.


      Raisins in the filling.


      Wheat soup

      شوربة القمح
      1. Follow the same recipe for the soup base (shorba).
      2. Once the base is ready, remove the meat once tender, leaving behind the soup stock.
      3. To the soup stock add refined cracked (bulghur) wheat and stir in for a few minutes until it begins to expand.
      4. Use enough for serving and remember it expands so approx. 50g will be enough for 3-4 people. The consistency should be thick but still loose enough to be a soup.
      5. Return the meat and serve with lime juice and croutons or crunchy bread.


      Use whole or ground oats instead of cracked wheat.

      Wal Wal

      ول ول
      South Sudanese
      1. Make fermented sorghum or millet batter (ajeen) made with minimal water so that once its fermenetd after 8 hours the cosistency is thick and dry. Break down and mix this dry fermenetd dough into very small balls using a splash of water at a time between mixing to make the balls uniform.
      2. Make a fish stock by boiling boneless fish in water with chopped onions, garlic, chopped tomato and spices. Alternatively make a vegetarian stock in a pot.
      3. Either cook the fermented balls on a greaseed hotplate (saaj) until golden on the outside then add to the stock or boil the fermented balls in the stock until cooked. Serve warm with soured milk on the side.

      Warag Inab

      ورق العنب
      Stuffed Vine Leaves
      1. Boil 1.5 cups Egyptian rice, parsley, dill, mint.
      2. Add 2 finely chopped tomatoes, 2 onion, 2 lime juice, ½ cup olive oil, salt and pepper.
      3. The water that comes off the salad is used to pour over the leaves later.
      4. Buy California grape leaves and wash off the preservative with running water.
      5. In the middle the leaf may have a hard stem which is discarded or the leaf is cut in half.
      6. Stuff the firm side of the leave first and leave the soft side to the outside.
      7. Steam the stuffed leaves in a pot by placing foil at the bottom and add the salad water from earlier with stock. Cover until stuffed vine leaves are fullly cooked.

      Yoghurt and mint soup

      شوربة الزبادي بالنعناع
      1. To the lamb soup stock add 100g rinsed rice and leave to simmer on low to medium heat until the rice cooks.
      2. In a separate bowl add 250g tub of Greek style yoghurt, 2 spoons of plain flour and crushed garlic.
      3. Mix the flour, yoghurt and 2 to 3 cloves of garlic in a hand blender. 
      4. Once the rice is cooked in the pan, pour the blended mixture from the bowl and mix quickly as the flour makes the soup thicken.
      5. Finally add fresh or dried mint and mix into the soup as it heats in its final moments. Once the soup is ready, serve with a garnish of fresh or dried mint.

      Sudanese Zighnay with chicken or lamb

      Sudanese version of Ethiopian Stew
      1. Begin by finely chopping 4 large white onions and cooking on a medium heat until soft and golden, add ghee and the zighnay spice known as delikh, which is a mixture of Ethiopian spices and tomato.
      2. Add fresh ginger, tomato pasta, fresh tomato juice and bring to the boil for 40 mins on a medium heat and keeping the stew moving by occasionally stirring.
      3. After approximately an hour the stew should reduce, add raw diced lamb or chicken, some can still be on the bone for taste and add either water or more tomato juice for consistency depending on how well it had reduced.
      4. It is very important not to over cook the meat as the chicken especially can fall apart so keep checking while occasionally stirring and remove as soon as its done. 
      5. Season with salt, pepper, crushed garlic and dried coriander, then allow the oils to rise to the surface before serving with either Ethiopian engera, gurasa or rice.


      For authenticity finish with a hard boiled egg but let it sit in the sauce after adding the meat to take up the stew's colour.


      Sea Snail
      1. Carefully extract a seasnail from its outter shell and slaughter.
      2. Either boil for 6 to 8 minutes or deep-fry in hot oil for 3 to 4 minutes until cooked.
      3. Serve with a chilli dip.